This study examines livelihood trajectories and poverty outcomes among rural Afghan households, examining change from a 2002-2003 panel set of household data. It examines how households have formed their livelihoods and what evidence there is of resilience and agency and of constraints imposed by the institutional contexts in which the households function.

Forests are crucial to the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of poor people worldwide, but just how important, and for what functions? Can they help lift people out of poverty, or are they mainly useful as gap-fillers and safety nets in response to shocks? Are certain types of forest-tenure and management regimes more favourable than others? And under what conditions can increased integration into forest-product markets help?

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