It is proposed to evaluate how access to micro-finance and processes of formalisation can impact on poverty by investigating two policies in Ghana and Tanzania. The first is the expansion of micro-credit services into randomly selected communities by several partner NGOs. The second is the implications of a process of formalising business structures currently underway in Tanzania.
On a planet in which all countries and sectors are increasingly interconnected, climate change affects people and societies around the world, at all levels. Responding to the long term, complex impacts of climate change presents a governance challenge at global level. Without equitable and accountable structures and processes of policy and decision making it will not be possible to achieve a global response to climate change, or to ensure the sustainability of economic development.
Many investors have responded to recent food price hikes and volatile oil prices by acquiring large tracts of African farmland as a new base from which to supply growing markets. In the process, land uses change and existing populations are often displaced. The livelihood impacts of such investments depend on the terms of land access and institutional arrangements or farming models that structure them. This research investigates three models: