Community management of handpumps has been the accepted mode of thinking for rural water supply over three decades in Africa. However, despite billions invested in rural handpumps one in three handpumps do not work in rural Africa.
Living in rural Africa has long been synonymous with being poor and water insecure. In 2012 more Africans will have access to mobile communication services than improved water services.
This study used data from a field experiment and a quasi-experiment to investigate group formation for collective action in nineteen African villages.