Agricultural productivity growth increases the incomes of farmers and lowers food prices, benefiting both the rural and urban poor who spend much of their incomes on food. The labour-using green revolution reduced poverty in land scarce, labour abundant Asia, but has not had sustained impacts in SSA, where scarce factor is often labour. Now, herbicide tolerant, genetically modified (GM) white maize, is being adopted by resource-poor smallholders in KwaZulu Natal.
This innovative project examines the causes of low educational outcomes in schools in India where many children fail to achieve basic literacy and numeracy levels, while dropout rates, affecting girls more than boys, are very high. A starting point of this research is that bilingualism and multilingualism have revealed cognitive advantages and good learning skills in children raised in western societies. Multilingualism is the norm in India.
The project aims to re-think conventional assumptions and offer new insights into the determinants of urban violence, including in particular identifying context-specific circumstances under which everyday urban conflict becomes violent.